Integrated Pest Management Tools for Crop Production

Apples | Berries | Field Crops | Grapes | Ornamentals | Vegetables | Other resources | Other decision systems

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Diseases | Insects | Thinning and irrigation | Top of page

Apple Disease Management

Apple Scab. Manage apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) fungicide inputs by tracking ascospore maturity, daily and cumulative ascospore discharge, and scab infection events.

Fire Blight. Assess fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) blossom blight risk with Cougarblight and infection potential (EIP) assessments. Add your recent streptomycin application date to re-evaluate risk. A trauma blight tool helps track shoot blight symptom development.

Sooty Blotch and Fly Speck. Track sooty blotch and fly speck disease potential to assess daily and forecasted infection risk.

Apple Insect Pests

Apple Maggot. This degree day model tracks base 50° F BE degree days to time red sphere trap deployment to manage apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella).

Codling Moth. This tool predicts codling moth (Cydia pomonella) life stages with base 50° F BE degree days to identify treatment windows with management guidelines.

Obliquebanded Leafroller. Using base 43° F BE degree days, this tool delineates obliquebanded leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana) development, sampling strategies, and management guidelines.

Oriental Fruit Moth. This degree day tool (base 45° F BE) tracks oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta) development across three generations, identifies treatment windows, and provides management information.

Plum Curculio. This tool uses base 50° F BE degree days to estimate the emigration of plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar) into the apple orchard following petal fall, the need for treatment and when treatment can cease.

San Jose Scale. Follow San Jose scale (Comstockaspis perniciosus) development using base 50° F BE degree days to identify treatment windows along with management guidelines.

Spotted Tentiform Leafminer. Using base 43°F BE degree days, this tool tracks spotted tentiform leafminer (Phyllonorycter blancardella) development, suggests when to hang pheromone traps and scout for leaf mines, as well as identifies treatment windows and provides management information.

Apple Thinning and Irrigation

Apple Carbohydrate Thinning. By predicting photosynthesis and carbohydrate assimilation in your trees, this tool takes the guesswork out of fruit thinning apples and suggests thinner rates based on tree carbohydrate balance.

Pollen Tube Growth Model. Accurately time apple blossom thinning using this tool that predicts pollen tube growth and king blossom pollination, based on your measured stylet lengths and the model’s calculated pollen tube growth rates.

Apple Irrigation. Optimize water use in your irrigation system with the apple irrigation tool, based on orchard density, age, recorded precipitation and supplemental irrigation inputs.


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Blueberry Maggot. Optimize monitoring for blueberry maggot (Rhagoletis mendax) with this base 50°F BE degree day tool that predicts adult emergence and enhances your ability to use IPM to determine if insecticide treatments are needed.

Strawberry Diseases. Optimize fungicide applications for strawberry fruit rot diseases. The tool predicts the optimal timing of fungicide applications for Anthracnose and Grey Mold based on temperature and rainfall. The model can be used from bloom through harvest in Day-neutral and June-bearing plantings of strawberries.

Field Crops

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Alfalfa Weevil. Monitor base 48°F daily and accumulated degree days to track alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) life stages as part of your alfalfa forage management program.

Seedcorn MaggotWork in progress...


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Grape Diseases. Manage grape diseases with infection risk tools that also provide management guidelines for black rot (Guignardia bidwellii), Phomopsis cane and leaf spot (Phomopsis viticola), and powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator).

Grape Berry Moth. This degree day tool estimates development of grape berry moth (Parolobesia viteana) generations, identifies treatment windows, and provides management guidelines.

Spotted Lanternfly. Track the development of spotted lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) from date of first egg mass detection in the fall, through overwintering periods and immature phases, to adult emergence in the next year.


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Conifer Pests. Monitor conifer insect pests through the year using base 50°F degree day accumulations to track development and get relevant IPM management information in real time.


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Beet Cercospora Leaf Spot. Manage Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora beticola) in table beet with this tool that predicts 2-day, 14-day, 21-day, and season-long infection risk.

Cabbage Maggot. Use base 40°F BE degree days to identify the critical treatment timing before cabbage maggot (Delia radicum) can infest your crucifer crops. Treatment guidelines include organic options.

Onion Diseases. These risk assessment tools forecast the infection potential for Botrytis leaf blight or blast (Botrytis squamosa), onion downy mildew (Peronospora destructor), and purple blotch (Alternaria porri).

Onion Maggot. Monitor base 40°F BE daily and accumulated degree days to track critical treatment timing for onion maggot (Delia antiqua) to protect your crop from this pest.

Potato Diseases. (Legacy resource) Ascertain infection risk using P-days for early blight (Alternaria solani) and Blitecast for late blight (Phytophthora infestans) to assess the need for targeted management.

Tomato Diseases. (Legacy resource) Manage tomato diseases more effectively using TOMCAST for early blight (Alternaria solani), Septoria leaf spot (Septoria lycopersici), and anthracnose (Colletotrichum coccodes) and using Blitecast for late blight (Phytophthora infestans) to identify infection risk.

Other Resources

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Blueberry Phenology Tool. Hosted by the Rutgers University Blueberry and Cranberry Research Station this tool calculates blueberry degree days and chilling units for selected sites in New Jersey.

Climate Smart Farming Apple Freeze Risk. Hosted by the Climate Smart Farming Program at Cornell University, this tool evaluates apple freeze damage risk for sites in the Northeast.

Critical Temperatures for Frost Damage on Fruit Trees.Hosted by Utah State University Extension, this PDF resource lists Fahrenheit temperatures for each stage of fruit development at which 10% and 90% bud kill occurs after 30 minutes of exposure for different tree fruit crops.

Cucurbit Downy Mildew. Hosted by the Cucurbit Downy Mildew ipmPIPE Forecasting Project, this tool provides regional and national forecasts of cucurbit downy mildew disease development from airborne transport of spores.

Cucurbit Downy Mildew | Current Forecast. Hosted by the Cucurbit Downy Mildew ipmPIPE Forecasting Project, this tool provides daily updates of regional and national forecasts of cucurbit downy mildew disease development from airborne transport of spores.

Database of Apple Disease Susceptibility. Hosted by the Khan Lab at Cornell University, this resource provides high quality disease images and detailed information about susceptibility levels of apple varieties and common cultivars.

Fore Cast. Hosted by the Northeast Regional Climate Center and Turf Team at Cornell University, this tool provides weather-based information and maps to manage diseases, irrigation, and weeds in managed turf systems in the Northeast.

Fusarium Head Blight Prediction Center. Hosted by the Center for Environmental Informatics at Penn State University, this tool provides regional and national map-based risk assessments of Fusarium head blight potential in wheat.

NRCC Apple Frost Risk. Hosted by the Northeast Regional Climate Center at Cornell University, this map-based tool provides an assessment of apple frost risk in the Northeast United States.

Sweet Corn Stewart’s Wilt Map. Hosted by the Northeast Regional Climate Center at Cornell University, this map-based tool provides an assessment of sweet corn Stewart’s wilt risk in the Northeast United States, using the Iowa State University model.

Other Decision Support Systems

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Ag-Radar. The University of Maine Cooperative Extension decision support tools for apple diseases, insects and mites, horticulture, and weather observations for a subset of locations in New England and New York.

AgroClimate. Based at the University of Florida Extension Program, this site has tools, forecasts, state summaries, and resources for managing risk in agriculture, focused on the Southeast region of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina.

AgWeatherNet. Washington State University via AgWeatherNet provides farmers, gardeners, researchers and policy makers with weather data and weather tools to improve agricultural production, efficiency, and profitability while minimizing environmental impacts.

Climate Corp. The Climate Corporation platform is focused on digital agriculture innovations, principally for large-scale agricultural production of field crops and has tools for crop performance, field imagery, variable rate applications, and fertility management.

Climate Smart Farming. Based at Cornell University, this website hosts several climate tools for agriculture covering topics such as growing degree days, water deficit, cover crop planting, freeze risk, and climate change, with a focus on the Northeast region.

Enviroweather. Michigan State University Extension operates Enviroweather in Michigan and select locations in Wisconsin, which provides weather-based pest, natural resources, and production management tools for fruit, field crops, ornamentals, livestock, trees, turfgrass, and vegetables.

North Carolina Climate Office/Agriculture. Hosted by the North Carolina State Climate Office at NC State University, you’ll find tools for agriculture in NC organized here – for irrigation, blueberries, blackberries, loblolly pine, and thrips in cotton. Also, find educational resources, data services, climate tools and interactive maps here. This site is hosted by the Integrated Plant Protection Center of Oregon State University and contains numerous tools and sources of weather data of national scope and significance that calculate risk in agricultural and horticultural commodities.

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More Info on NEWA Tools

Default Biofix Dates

Many crop and IPM tools require a biofix date to calculate risk. Learn about how NEWA may use a default biofix date to generate results.

About Degree Days

This page gives background information on how degree days are calculated, their importance in biology, and what IPM tools use them.

How NEWA Handles Weather Data

Learn about how weather data is kept accurate and up-to-date and how variables are uniquely handled to reflect agricultural settings.

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